Il Mistero di Zarat (LE NOTE AZZURRE ROMANZI) (Italian Edition)

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The conference hotel Best Western Time Hotel is within a 20 minute walking distance of both. The hotel is meters from the bus stop. Tickets can be bought on the bus or in advance on the web site. The buses run very frequently during the day. Avoid the train, which is more expensive and takes longer. There will be some rune stones on the way. Dan Petersen SU , dan.

Tilman Bauer KTH , tilmanb kth. Alexander Berglund, alexb math. Specifically, the ability of instrumental motives to effectively undermine the positive influence of internal motives on engagement in a course of action has not been demonstrated in a real-world context in which the outcomes have the potential to shape individual education and career trajectories and, more broadly, to shape public institutions.

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Even less is known about the impact of holding additional types of motives at varying levels of strength in these realms. There is some research that may provide clues. Other research in educational contexts that has differentiated between autonomous and controlled motivation 3 suggests that autonomous motivation predicts stronger persistence and better performance 13 , 14 , whereas controlled motivation predicts lower engagement and performance 15 , Furthermore, students experiencing high levels of both autonomous and controlled motivation have lower GPAs and procrastinate more than those with high levels of autonomous motivation and low levels of controlled motivation Similarly, evidence from workplaces suggests that employees experiencing high levels of both autonomous and controlled motivation are poorer performers, even when their levels of initiative are high Although these studies focus on the relationship between motivation inherent in the individual rather than for the activity at hand, the pattern is instructive: motivation that stems from sources external to the self undermines key outcomes.

Clarifying the relation between different types of motives is of great practical significance. Whether called instrumental, controlled, or extrinsic 2 , 3 , some level of motivation from sources external to the activity itself is likely to occur in anyone undertaking a paid activity, which includes essentially every working adult.

Because most people must work to make a living, instrumental consequences are ever present, and instrumental motives are likely present; thus, understanding the ways in which the strength of these motives vary and interact with motives internal to the activity is essential if we are to create work environments in which people work effectively and energetically.

In the present study, we hypothesized that having strong internally based motives for undertaking a course of action will be associated with stronger persistence and better performance, but when these internally based motives are accompanied by strong instrumentally based motives, outcomes will be worse across a range of indicators of persistence and performance. We tested our hypotheses with data drawn from nine classes of West Point cadets at the start of their education, linking the strength of their various motives for attending West Point with outcomes that reflect their persistence and quality as military personnel between 4 and 14 y later.

Specifically, we conducted analyses of data drawn from 11, cadets from nine consecutive entering classes of West Point cadets the classes of — Across two different survey measures administered by the institution at the start of their first year, cadets indicated how much each of a set of reasons offered represented their reasons for attending West Point, which allowed them to endorse any number of reasons at various levels of strength response scales for the two measures ranged from very important to not important on a 1—3 Likert-type scale; and very positive to very negative on a 1—5 Likert-type scale.

Reasons offered in the survey ranged from the prospect of getting a good job instrumental , to economic necessity cadets do not pay tuition , to a desire to be an Army officer internal. Of the various reasons offered, two types were of key interest: reasons indicating an internal desire to become an Army officer and reasons indicating an instrumental desire to gain eventual outcomes associated with attending West Point.

A total of 31 reasons appeared in the surveys and were subjected to exploratory factor analysis EFA 20 following assignment by A. We retained 24 items after dropping those that failed to load stably on one or two factors. We identified six factors SI Materials and Methods that maintained stability after splitting the sample and conducting EFA with half of the sample. The factors largely reflected several motive types identified in earlier work as guiding the decision to volunteer Of the factors identified, two key factors addressed our interest in internal and instrumental motives.

If this were an instrumental motive, we would expect it to be related to other instrumental motives, which it was not; leadership training is core to the aspiration to be an effective Army officer, as one could not be an effective Army officer without it. Secondary to these factors were four additional factors that tapped different motives for attending West Point. Two other factors reflected the relational influence of others in attending West Point, akin to controlled motivation 3 , with one factor representing the influence of parents and relatives and the other reflecting the influence of teachers and counselors.


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A final factor was indicative of a desire to gain study skills and become more cultured by attending West Point. Although this factor has internal characteristics, motives of this type could be satisfied by going to any college or university. All analyses focused on the lagged effect of motives held upon entry to West Point on outcomes achieved between 4 and 14 y after these motives were assessed.

The negative parameter estimate indicates less risk of leaving the military and higher likelihood of staying in the military. All retention and consideration for promotion analyses used an inverse probability weighting to account for attrition in the sample over time SI Materials and Methods. As Fig. Specifically, retention fall-off was steepest when instrumental motivation was highest Fig.

However, strong internal motivation reduced this negative effect. Regression results for making commission, exiting military, and being considered for early promotion. Effect of instrumental factor F3 on internal factor F4 for probability that cadet will make commission collapsed across class years.

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Retention probability after completion of mandatory service at different levels of instrumental motivation. The graphs reflect the logit-transformed probability of remaining in the military. Effect of instrumental factor F3 on internal factor F4 for probability of being considered for early promotion collapsed across class years. Each outcome was also predicted by the interaction of parental influence and internal motives to enroll at West Point; because of space restrictions, these interactions are not explored further herein.

Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets

It seems obvious and incontrovertible that if people have two reasons to do something they will be more likely to do it, and will do it better, than if they have only one. However, much of that attention has been in the form of what might be called experimental party tricks: reward people for doing something they like and they like it less.

Demonstrations of this form miss the fact that in real life, people bring multiple motives to almost any course of action, often, far more significant courses of action than those assessed in experimental studies of motivation. The instrumental does not have to be imposed from outside. Additionally, they fail to show that the undermining effect of instrumental outcomes is any more than a temporary deflection from what internal motives would produce.


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  4. In our study multiple motives presumably persist over time, and their effects certainly persist over time. Our results demonstrate that instrumental motives can weaken the positive effects of internal motives in real-world contexts and that this effect can persist across educational and career transitions over periods spanning up to 14 y. Following their entry into the Army, officers who entered West Point with stronger instrumentally based motives were less likely to be considered for early promotion and to stay in the military following their mandatory period of service, even if they also held internally based motives.

    In this report we have emphasized the negative impact of instrumental motives on the effects of internal motives, but put another way, internal motives help to stem the deleterious effects of instrumental motives. The results suggest that across long periods of time, during which individual motivations could well be shifting, understanding the initial motive structure that causes people to undertake effortful courses of action is valuable in predicting important outcomes. The lagged nature of the research design used here does not allow for the explanation of additional variance that would surely result from measuring changes in the motivational arcs of cadets during the interim years that unfolded following their entry to West Point.

    However, simply knowing the motive structure that existed at the initiation of the activity provides valuable insight into the ways in which the relationship between the motive and the activity shapes outcomes. The potential scope of applicability of this undermining effect on performance is significant. Most contexts in which people operate offer multiple outcomes for performance. Diligent students learn and get good grades. Doctors ease suffering and make a good living. Among West Point cadets, persistence and effort would lead both to excellence as officers and materially successful careers.

    It is hard to imagine a meaningful domain of human activity that does not have instrumental consequences. However, just because activities have both internal and instrumental consequences does not mean that the people who engage in these activities have both internal and instrumental motives. Because instrumental consequences cannot be eliminated from human affairs, what the results suggest is that attention should be paid to motives in addition to consequences, and that efforts be made to structure activities so that some consequences do not become motives.

    What might such efforts look like? We speculate that there are three features of organizations that might turn instrumental consequences into motives. First, if organizations do little or nothing to emphasize their purposes, aside—for example—from earning profits, internal motives may wither while instrumental motives become ascendant.

    Small but regular reminders of organizational purpose can keep internal motives dominant and improve employee performance at the same time Second, if organizations use instrumental consequences as incentives e. Instead, a range of meaningful consequences could be highlighted e. Finally, we speculate that the character of the work itself may turn instrumental consequences into motives.

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    When workers are rigidly supervised, with little autonomy to shape the nature of their daily activities, this may erode motives that would be internal to the work if the work were structured differently The ability to shape the activity itself, in ways that increase its inherent interest 23 or meaning 22 , boosts the long-term motivation that is necessary to longevity and success in a number of contexts Even when the content of the tasks involved cannot be shaped by individuals seeking to maintain their motivation, evidence suggests that simply having a realistic understanding of the tasks involved in a course of action improves engagement and retention over time There is a temptation to use whatever motivational levers one has to recruit participants or energize performance.

    This shotgun strategy may get more recruits, but it may also yield worse soldiers. If a subset of students is not interested in learning, or even in grades, then offers of financial incentives for good attendance and high performance may reach students who cannot be reached in other ways. The reasoning behind such strategies is completely understandable, but it may be unproductive or even counterproductive.

    Structuring a course of action to be more attractive by emphasizing both activity-specific and instrumental reasons to engage in it may have the unintended effects of decreasing the likelihood that individuals and the institutions of which they are a part will realize the benefits of long-lasting persistence and strong performance. Previous research has shown that people who do the same work can view it as a job, a career, or a calling, and that people who view their work as a calling find more satisfaction and do better work than people with the other two orientations Callings have several characteristics, but one significant factor that distinguishes them from jobs and careers is the relative insignificance of instrumental factors to why people are working in the first place.

    Instead, callings denote a focus on the fulfillment experienced from the work itself, often accompanied by a sense that the work contributes to others in a meaningful way Finding ways to emphasize the internal and minimize the instrumental may lead to better and more satisfied students and soldiers. This work was generously supported by the Yale School of Management. Author contributions: A. This article contains supporting information online at www. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail.

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    Skip to main content. Amy Wrzesniewski. Significance Virtually any sustained, effortful activity can be motivated by factors internal to the activity e. Abstract Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. Results Across two different survey measures administered by the institution at the start of their first year, cadets indicated how much each of a set of reasons offered represented their reasons for attending West Point, which allowed them to endorse any number of reasons at various levels of strength response scales for the two measures ranged from very important to not important on a 1—3 Likert-type scale; and very positive to very negative on a 1—5 Likert-type scale.

    View this table: View inline View popup. Table 1. Discussion It seems obvious and incontrovertible that if people have two reasons to do something they will be more likely to do it, and will do it better, than if they have only one. E-mail: amy. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. Psychol Inq 11 4 : —

    Mayor on shooting: We do not yet have a motive