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The genetically engineered bacteria are able to produce large quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost. The application of biotechnology to basic science for example through the Human Genome Project has also dramatically improved our understanding of biology and as our scientific knowledge of normal and disease biology has increased, our ability to develop new medicines to treat previously untreatable diseases has increased as well.

Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases , and can also be used to determine a child's parentage genetic mother and father or in general a person's ancestry. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders.

Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes , genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. As of several hundred genetic tests were in use. Genetically modified crops "GM crops", or "biotech crops" are plants used in agriculture , the DNA of which has been modified with genetic engineering techniques.

In most cases, the main aim is to introduce a new trait that does not occur naturally in the species. Biotechnology firms can contribute to future food security by improving the nutrition and viability of urban agriculture. Furthermore, the protection of intellectual property rights encourages private sector investment in agrobiotechnology. For example, in Illinois FARM Illinois Food and Agriculture RoadMap for Illinois is an initiative to develop and coordinate farmers, industry, research institutions, government, and nonprofits in pursuit of food and agriculture innovation.

In addition, the Illinois Biotechnology Industry Organization iBIO is a life sciences industry association with more than life sciences companies, universities, academic institutions, service providers and others as members. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, [44] diseases, [45] stressful environmental conditions, [46] resistance to chemical treatments e. Farmers have widely adopted GM technology. Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA with the methods of genetic engineering.

MICROBIOREACTORS AS ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENT

These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new crop traits as well as a far greater control over a food's genetic structure than previously afforded by methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding. These have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have also been experimentally developed; in November none were available on the market, [58] but in the FDA approved the first GM salmon for commercial production and consumption.

There is a scientific consensus [60] [61] [62] [63] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. GM crops also provide a number of ecological benefits, if not used in excess.

Industrial biotechnology known mainly in Europe as white biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes, including industrial fermentation.


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It includes the practice of using cells such as microorganisms , or components of cells like enzymes , to generate industrially useful products in sectors such as chemicals, food and feed, detergents, paper and pulp, textiles and biofuels. By using renewable raw materials to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels, industrial biotechnology is actively advancing towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petrochemical-based economy. The environment can be affected by biotechnologies, both positively and adversely. Vallero and others have argued that the difference between beneficial biotechnology e.

The regulation of genetic engineering concerns approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the use of genetic engineering technology, and the development and release of genetically modified organisms GMO , including genetically modified crops and genetically modified fish.

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There are differences in the regulation of GMOs between countries, with some of the most marked differences occurring between the USA and Europe. For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety. Depending on the coexistence regulations, incentives for cultivation of GM crops differ. Each successful application is generally funded for five years then must be competitively renewed.

Graduate students in turn compete for acceptance into a BTP; if accepted, then stipend, tuition and health insurance support is provided for two or three years during the course of their Ph. Environment International. In spite of this, the number of studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM plants is still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products mainly maize and soybeans are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was observed.

Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants.

Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. Krimsky, Sheldon I began this article with the testimonials from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the scientific literature tells another story.


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  8. Panchin, Alexander Y. January 14, Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Here, we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the statistical evaluation of the data.

    Having accounted for these flaws, we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide any substantial evidence of GMO harm. The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high public attention. However, despite their claims, they actually weaken the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them should have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional crops even if no such differences exist in reality.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products. Main article: History of biotechnology. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. October Main articles: Regulation of genetic engineering and Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms.

    Biology portal Technology portal Agriculture portal Food portal Medicine portal. Friedman Y Washington, DC: Logos Press.

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    Oliver RW The Coming Biotech Age. American Journal of Sociology. Rasmussen N Rome : FAO. Agricultural Economic Report. History of biotechnology Timeline of biotechnology Competitions and prizes in biotechnology. Colors of biotechnology Industrial biotechnology.

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    Animal cell culture Bioinformatics Biosynthesis Bionic architecture Cell immunity Cloning Reproductive cloning Therapeutic cloning Embryology Environmental biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetically modified organisms Molecular genetics Gene therapy Microbial biodegradation Omics Pharmacogenomics Stem cells Telomere Tissue culture. Index of biotechnology articles List of biotechnology articles List of biotechnology companies.

    Category Commons. Topics related to biology. Biologist Notable biologists History of biology Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Timeline of biology and organic chemistry List of geneticists and biochemists. Bachelor of Science Publications.

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    Omne vivum ex ovo In vivo In vitro In utero In silico. List of conservation topics Altricial and Precocial development strategies. Retrieved on March 20, Archived from the original PDF on August 7, Retrieved December 29, Retrieved October 30, Archived January 23, , at the Wayback Machine.

    Cleveland, Ohio: BeerBooks. Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Retrieved December 7, Introduction to Biotechnology. Biotechnology: The Science and the Business. CRC Press. Chakrabarty, U. June 16, Retrieved on May 4, Computer History Museum. Retrieved August 31, Applied Science and Convergence Technology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

    Chronoamperometry, based on enzymatic oxidation of the target species, was utilized as the electrochemical detection method.